麦布女王(1594年莎翁创作“罗密欧与朱丽叶”中的仙女)

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“麦布女王”是一个神话故事中的仙女精灵,因莎翁的著名剧本“罗密欧与朱丽叶”中的相关描述而为世人熟知。根据剧本的描述,麦布女王可以帮助人类实现梦境。
中文名
麦布女王
外文名
Queen Mab
角色类型
神话人物
原    著
罗密欧与朱丽叶
原著作者
威廉·莎士比亚

麦布女王角色简介

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“麦布女王”(艺术家詹姆士的手工艺品) “麦布女王”(艺术家詹姆士的手工艺品)
“麦布女王”(Queen Mab)为世人所知主要是莎士比亚的功劳,其第一次在英语作品中出现是莎翁的著名悲剧罗密欧与朱丽叶”(Romeo and Juliet)的第一幕第四场中的“默库肖的演说”(Mercutio’s speech[1]  )。[2] 
在莎翁的喜剧仲夏夜之梦”(A Midsummer Night's Dream)中也提及过“麦布女王”。在该剧中“麦布女王”被古怪地描述成类似飞蛾Moth)和芥子Mustardseed),剧中提到了她的四轮马车和侍从[3] 
“麦布女王”在莎翁的著作中是在人类熟睡时唤醒人类阴暗面(包括口臭,当庭贿赂,教会贪婪战争性欲等等)的精灵,难怪罗密欧疾呼“和平,和平,默库肖,和平!”(Peace, peace, Mercutio, peace!,"罗密欧与朱丽叶"第一幕第四场第95行)。[3] 
“麦布女王”并不是莎翁创造的人物,早在莎翁创作“罗密欧与朱丽叶”几个世纪之前,麦布女王是凯尔特Celtic,现为爱尔兰)的民间传说中的人物,其历史原型是王后美芙(Medb)。[2] 

麦布女王角色分析

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麦布女王原文描述

“罗密欧与朱丽叶”第一幕第四场“默库肖的演说"(原文)[3] 
Mercutio: O, then, I see Queen Mab hath been with you.
She is the fairies' midwife, and she comes
In shape no bigger than an agate-stone
On the fore-finger of an alderman,
Drawn with a team of little atomies
Athwart men's noses as they lie asleep;
Her waggon-spokes made of long spinners' legs,
The cover of the wings of grasshoppers,
The traces of the smallest spider's web,
The collars of the moonshine's watery beams,
Her whip of cricket's bone, the lash of film,
Her waggoner a small grey-coated gnat,
Not so big as a round little worm
Prick'd from the lazy finger of a maid;
Her chariot is an empty hazel-nut
Made by the joiner squirrel or old grub,
Time out o' mind the fairies' coachmakers.
And in this state she gallops night by night
Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love;
O'er courtiers' knees, that dream on court'sies straight,
O'er lawyers' fingers, who straight dream on fees,
O'er ladies' lips, who straight on kisses dream,
Which oft the angry Mab with blisters plagues,
Because their breaths with sweetmeats tainted are:
Sometime she gallops o'er a courtier's nose,
And then dreams he of smelling out a suit;
And sometime comes she with a tithe-pig's tail
Tickling a parson's nose as a' lies asleep,
Then dreams, he of another benefice:
Sometime she driveth o'er a soldier's neck,
And then dreams he of cutting foreign throats,
Of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades,
Of healths five-fathom deep; and then anon
Drums in his ear, at which he starts and wakes,
And being thus frighted, swears a prayer or two
And sleeps again. This is that very Mab
That plats the manes of horses in the night,
And bakes the elflocks in foul sluttish hairs,
Which once untangled much misfortune bodes:
This is the hag, when maids lie on their backs,
That presses them and learns them first to bear,
Making them women of good carriage:
This is she--
Romeo: Peace, peace, Mercutio, peace!
Thou talk'st of nothing.[3] 

麦布女王赏析

“麦布女王”(英国皇家邮政发行的邮票) “麦布女王”(英国皇家邮政发行的邮票)
麦布女王被莎翁描述成一个“仙女促成者”(the fairies' midwife),她是一个帮助人类实现梦境的仙女精灵。剧中的罗密欧刚刚从一场恶梦中醒来,默库肖和罗密欧开起了玩笑,默库肖说梦总是骗人的,当罗密欧反驳他的时候,默库肖开始了关于麦布女王篇幅42行的演讲(如目录“原文描述”所示),其中描绘了麦布女王的形象坐骑[6] 
“她的身体只有戒指上一颗玛瑙那么大(“comes / In shape no bigger than an agate stone”,第55~56行);几匹蚂蚁大小的细马替她拖着车子,越过酣睡的人们的鼻梁,她的车辐是用蜘蛛的长脚作成的;车篷是蚱蜢的翅膀;挽索是小蜘蛛丝,颈带如水的月光;马鞭是蟋蟀的骨头;缰绳是天际的游丝。替她驾车的是一只小小的灰色的蚊虫,它的大小还不及从一个贪懒丫头的指尖上挑出来的懒虫的一半。她的车子是野蚕用一个榛子的空壳替她造成,它们从古以来,就是精灵们的车匠。”[3] 
麦布女王的坐骑是四轮马车,四轮马车在莎翁的时代是贵族富人才能够乘坐的,所以麦布女王是仙界的贵族。[6] 
莎翁所描绘的麦布女王是个恶魔传播者,她在其所到之处都传播着病害[1] 
“她每夜驱着这样的车子,穿过情人们的脑中,他们就会在梦里谈情说爱;经过官员们的膝上,他们就会在梦里打躬作揖;经过律师们的手指,他们就会在梦里伸手讨讼费;经过娘儿们的嘴唇,她们就地在梦里跟人家接吻,可是因为春梦婆讨厌她们嘴里吐出来的糖果的气息,往往罚她们满嘴长着水泡。有时奔驰过廷臣的鼻子,他就会在梦里寻找好差事,有时她从捐献给教会的猪身上拔下它的尾巴来,撩拨着一个牧师的鼻孔,他就会梦见自己又领到一份俸禄;有时她绕过一个兵士的颈项,他就会梦见杀敌人的头,进攻、埋伏、锐利的剑锋、淋漓的痛饮——忽然被耳边的鼓声惊醒,咒骂了几句,又翻了个身睡去了。就是这一个春梦婆在夜里把马鬣打成了辫子,把懒女人的龌龊的乱发烘成一处处胶粘的硬块,倘然把它们梳通了,就要遭逢祸事;就是这个婆子在人家女孩子们仰面睡觉的时候,压在她们的身上,教会她们怎样养儿子。”[1] 
莎翁此处可能是喻指各类身体疾病和社会弊病。[1] 
参考资料
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